UNITVANNOTATED.docx – Assignment:




Unit V Annotated Bibliography
Renica Jones
HLS 6320
Columbia Southern University
12/6/22

Part A
Question 1
Following Bolat et al. (2022), Strict guidelines are imposed by international humanitarian law on the selection of weapons and tactics. There are international conventions and laws prohibiting the deployment of weapons of mass distraction because these weapons must not inflict indiscriminate harm to civilians. They must not be prone to inflicting unnecessary damage or suffering on combatants. Mass destruction weapons do not abide by these regulations.
Question 2
Threats from terrorist groups and criminal states looking to use WMD, or weapons of mass destruction, are becoming increasingly frequent, and the United States is constantly at risk. Albedwawi claims that (nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological, or explosives) are one sort of weapon of mass destruction.
Question 3
Every type and category of WMD has a specific treaty governing it. The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), whose objective was to ban biological weapons entirely, and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which intended to stop the spread of WMD, particularly to non-state actors, are two examples of these treaties. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is another agreement to outlaw chemical weapons entirely. Finally, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW), whose aim is to outlaw nuclear weapons completely, is mentioned in Kmentt’s novel as signed in 2021.
Question 4
Each of the United States and the UN has a specific role to play in upholding international law and the provisions of each Treaty. The UN body’s principal tribunal settles cases by states by international law. Furthermore, it offers legal advice on matters referred to by authorized UN bodies and specialized organizations. They also advance peace and security throughout the world. Human rights respect delivering aid to the needy: support sustainable development and climate action. The ability to fully implement international law ultimately rests with the United Nations Security Council. Fines, maintaining the peace, or formal reprimands are some ways they can do this.
Question 5
Kent (2021) contends that several challenges exist in enforcing international WMD laws and regulations. Among these concerns are the risks posed by poverty, illness, and environmental degradation. The conflict between states poses a threat. to state-wide human rights violations and violent threats. The threat of terrorism. Every international law and Treaty has undergone several revisions to improve its effectiveness and inclusiveness in providing member states with security.
Question 6
It is possible to compel non-member states of the UN to abide by international law and convention in several ways. First, the Security Council of the United Nations can officially denounce, impose sanctions, or otherwise enforce international law.
PART B
Albedwawi, S. A. A. M. (2022). Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) An Overview. South Asian Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 3(3), 103-110.
The international community became aware of a significant development in unconventional weapons. Nations fought to develop weapons with immense destructive potential; This allowed for an arms race between the superpowers. This essay explores WMD using a doctrinal legal research methodology. This article defines WMDs, their traits, and the International Court of Justice’s legal stance on their threat or use in light of those traits. We discover that despite the international community’s best efforts, superpower supremacy with WMDs remains a problem. Finally, this article provided several recommendations for achieving the ICJ’s objectives of guaranteeing environmental security and preventing the destruction brought on by the use of WMDs.
Bolat, A., Saimova, S., Bekezhanov, D., Ashimova, D., Konysbekova, M., & Zhakupova, G. (2022). MODERN PROBLEMS OF THE LAW ENFORCEMENT PRACTICE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF DISARMAMENT IN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY LAW. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 25(1), 1-19.
International treaties regulate disarmament; Bases and other military-related operations are prohibited, entirely or partly. Despite the favourable environment for disarmament that exists on the international and global levels right now, the implementation of nuclear disarmament requires a thorough and sincere struggle on the part of the international community. Disarmament and arms control are among the most potent global legal tools for resolving disputes and maintaining peace.
Feltes, J. (2021). Weapons of Mass Destruction—Conceptual and Ethical Issues with Regard to terrorism. In Counter-Terrorism, Ethics and Technology (pp. 49-69). Springer, Cham.
The concept of WMD is part of numerous state laws and forms the basis of one of the essential UN treaties [51, 64]. But the definition of a WMD still needs to be decided and is far from resolved. Over the past eight decades, various partially at-odds WMD conceptualizations have been introduced into scientific debates, popular culture, and legislation by academics, policymakers, and lawmakers. Therefore, it is not surprising that this concept and its changing definition have been politicized.WMD quickly came to stand for the worst-case terrorist attack scenario that must be prevented at all costs, especially in light of the so-called “War Against Terror.” However, terrorism and other asymmetrical wars pose substantial threats to the concept of WMD, making it necessary to seek alternatives in counterterrorism debates. The moral issues that the word “WMD” presents when combined with terrorism lead to one particular concern.
Okoro, O. I., & Oluka, N. L. (2019). Weapons of mass destruction and modern terrorism: Implications for global security. Asian Social Science, 15(3), 1-13.
The biggest crime and threat to humanity come from the arsenals of terrorists that contain biological, chemical, and nuclear materials called Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Acting swiftly and firmly against terrorists is a duty owed to citizens by state actors who are faced with them. Therefore, accurately identifying each of these crimes and difficulties is essential. Terrorist activity has increased in several regions of the world, even though the fight against terrorism is still ongoing. This study aims to determine the implications and effects of terrorists using WMD. The study also looks at WMD and terrorism. It also examined the general impact of using WMD and the challenges this might present to the international community in light of the current trends in their acquisition by some states and non-state actors. Finally, the investigation offers suitable suggestions for countermeasures to thwart terrorists’ attempts to acquire WMD. The study used a qualitative method to research to examine the level of sophistication used by emerging terrorist organizations, including the ISIS terrorist network, the al-Qaeda organization, and other splinter groups.
Kent, A. (2021). The Treaty Prohibiting Nuclear Weapons: How it was Achieved and Why it Matters. Routledge.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Review Conference’s endorsement of the Action Plan, which for the first time voiced concern about the humanitarian repercussions of nuclear weapon use, gave rise to optimism that the non-nuclear-weapon States would make progress toward disarmament. However, the lack of such progress gave new momentum to the Humanitarian Initiative, which was established to enforce the growing awareness of the humanitarian consequences as an essential condition for nuclear disarmament. The book also discusses other challenges that the movement experienced, such as the nuclear-weapon States’ hostility and the strategies that were effective in overcoming them and forcing a change in the views and stances of the majority of NNWS concerning a legal solution.

References
Albedwawi, S. A. A. M. (2022). Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) An Overview. South Asian Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 3(3), 103-Bolat, A., Saimova, S., Bekezhanov, D., Ashimova, D., Konysbekova, M., & Zhakupova, G. (2022). MODERN PROBLEMS OF THE LAW ENFORCEMENT PRACTICE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF DISARMAMENT IN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY LAW. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 25(1), 1-19.110.
Feltes, J. (2021). Weapons of Mass Destruction—Conceptual and Ethical Issues with Regard to terrorism. In Counter-Terrorism, Ethics and Technology (pp. 49-69). Springer, Cham.
Kent, A. (2021). The Treaty Prohibiting Nuclear Weapons: How it was Achieved and Why it Matters. Routledge.
Okoro, O. I., & Oluka, N. L. (2019). Weapons of mass destruction and modern terrorism: Implications for global security. Asian Social Science, 15(3), 1-13.

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